Candlesticks and small works are cast in a frame with sand. Having stamped the work, sprinkle it with flour in order to make the copper or latten run better. When the sand has been in use for one month, it is necessary to take some new sand because that which has been used, being reheated +, dries & loses its binding power. Yet it is used mixed with the new sand, because it makes the work less porous. Large works such as artillery, bells and similar things are cast in earth, and copper cast in earth makes less crust and is whiter than when cast in sand. The earth is sandy clay mixed with horse dung and cloth waste. The earth that has been used for casting, which is black, baked and as if burnt, is mixed with artificial sand, and is very good. For softening and making the copper run, once it is melted, one throws in some lead, which does not form an alloy but is found on the surface of the cast.
at left middle margin of folio 015r
+ by the heat of molten metal